Veja também: Diposta aqui uma cronologia do site Ancient History.
Organizado por Fábio Conatus
[ Fontes: Cronologia do extinto Almanaque Abril, podcasts, artigos, livros. Palavras localizáveis pela busca do site e, uma vez na página, por Ctrl + F ]
O Paleolítico (παλαιός, palaiós=”antigo”, λίθος, lithos=”pedra”, “pedra antiga”) ou Idade da Pedra Lascada, refere-se ao período da pré-história que começou há cerca de 2,5 milhões de anos, quando os antepassados do Homem começaram a produzir os primeiros artefatos em pedra lascada, destacando-se de todos os outros animais, e que durou até cerca de 10000 BCE, quando houve a chamada Revolução Neolítica, em que a agricultura passou a ser cultivada, tornando o homem não mais dependente apenas da coleta e da caça.
Neste período os humanos eram essencialmente nômades caçadores-coletores, tendo que se deslocar constantemente em busca de alimentos. Desenvolveram os primeiros instrumentos de caça feitos em madeira, osso ou pedra lascada.
Este longo período histórico subdivide-se em Paleolítico Inferior (até há aproximadamente 300 mil anos) e Paleolítico Superior (até 10 mil BCE). Há certa discordância entre estudiosos quanto a essa divisão, sendo que alguns intercalam um Paleolítico Médio entre o Inferior e o Superior. O Paleolítico coincide com o final da época geológica Plioceno do período geológico Neogeno.
O termo Paleolítico foi empregado pela primeira vez pelo historiador John Lubbock. Foi precedido pelo período pré-histórico que alguns historiadores chamam de Eolítico, e sucedido pelo Neolítico. Na Europa e em outros locais onde ocorreram glaciações, intercala-se o período chamado Mesolítico entre o Paleolítico e o Neolítico.
Mesolítico ou Paleolítico Superior (30.000 BCE até 18.000 BCE) é o termo usado para denominar o período da pré-história, que serve de transição entre o Paleolítico e o Neolítico, e presente (ou pelo menos, com duração razoável) apenas em algumas regiões do mundo, onde não houve transição direta entre esses dois períodos. Significa Idade Média da Pedra (do grego μεσος, mesos =médio; e λίθος, líthos =pedra) por contraposição ao Paleolítico (Idade Antiga da Pedra) e ao Neolítico (Idade Nova da Pedra), identificando-se com as últimas sociedades de caçadores-coletores.
O período mesolítico só existiu em algumas regiões do mundo onde não houve transição direta entre os períodos Paleolítico e Neolítico, pois, a evolução histórica se deu diferente em determinadas regiões.
Os hábitos das culturas do Mesolítico eram basicamente nómades, com assentamentos estacionais de Inverno e acampamentos de verão, embora em algumas regiões costeiras europeias e no Próximo Oriente (ali onde encontraram recursos suficientes e regulares) começassem a viver de um modo mais sedentário.
As regiões que sofreram maiores efeitos das glaciações tiveram Mesolíticos mais evidentes.
Iniciou-se com o fim do Pleistoceno, há cerca de 10 mil anos, e terminou com a introdução da agricultura, em épocas que variam de acordo com a região.
Neolítico (pedra nova) ou Período da Pedra Polida é o período histórico que vai aproximadamente do décimo milênio BCE, com o início da sedentarização e surgimento da agricultura, ao terceiro milênio BCE, dando lugar à Idade dos Metais. Não se aplica à pré-história europeia nem americana, incluindo a do Brasil.
Idade do Cobre, ou Calcolítico (do grego Χαλκός, transl. khalkos), “cobre” + λίθος, transl. líthos, “pedra“) é um dos períodos da proto-história, situado cronologicamente entre o Neolítico e a Idade do Bronze (aproximadamente 3300 a 1200 BCE). O termo também pode ser utilizado para denominar algumas sociedades que apresentaram manifestações culturais diferenciadas durante este período.
O bronze é uma liga metálica que compreende o cobre e o estanho, antes de se usar o bronze, usou-se o cobre, a esta época de utilização do cobre, chamou-se calcolítico, não obstante este facto, há quem não aceite[quem?]esta designação caracterizadora, pois argumenta que a fundição de cobre não é mais do que o bronze natural; mesmo assim, a mesma utiliza-se, pois diferencia os períodos nos quais o bronze era forjado naturalmente da era em que o bronze começou a ser forjado artificialmente e com recurso a estanho. O sítio arqueológico de Belovode na montanha Rudnik na Sérvia contém a mais antiga evidência segura no mundo de cobre fundido, é datado de 5000 BCE
Pré-História e Idade Antiga
Idade da Pedra — Paleolítico [ 3,4 milhões de anos a 8.700 BCE] [ here ]
- 35.000 BCE | The homo sapienssettled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago [ Wikipedia ]
Idade da Pedra — Mesolítico [ 10.000 BCE a 5.000 BCE]
- 15.000 BCE | Época em que se estima haver o ser humano desenvolvido a fala.
Idade da Pedra — Neolítico [ 10.200 BCE a 4.500/2.000 BCE]
- 9000 BCE | Época em que se estima haver o ser humano desenvolvido a agricultura e a domesticação de animais. Em pontos diversos, mas o primeiro foi o atual Oriente Médio. [ A Sagração do Homem ]
- Prehistoric Europe — Civilizations and peoples [ Wikipedia ]
- 7000 BCE (aprox.) | Europeans drawn from three ancient “tribes”
- 7000 BCE | Agricultura é desenvolvida na Grécia neolítica. Com a necessidade da especialização (desnecessária para a coleta e a caça), começam a surgir categorias como comerciantes dos produtos e militares para defender as terras. Daí o surgimento das classes sociais e da desvalorização da mulher.
- 5000 BCE | Época em que se estima haver o ser humano desenvolvido a escrita.
- 5000 BCE | Agriculture was introduced in Brittany during the 5th millennium BC by migrants who came from the South and the East. [ Wikipedia]
- 4500 – 2000 BCE | “The close likeliness in vocabulary and grammatical structure among ancient languages and their descendents soon lighted the hypothesis that they had all sprung from a common linguistic ancestor, which was termed “indo-european”. It was reasoned that it has once been a single european homeland, located perhaps in the vast steppes north of the Black-Caspian Seas in Central Asia and that the separate languages developed over the course of migrations from the homeland and the distant places around 4500 to 2000 BC. The original language would have disappeared well before the invention of writing, however.” [source: Episode 4 of the podcast “The History of Ancient Greece” on Stitcher App.]
- 4000 BCE | Início no uso do arado (máquina de tração animal) na agricultura da Grécia neolítica
- 4000 BCE | No região mais oriental da autual Europa, desenvolvimento do bronze, um metal mais rídigo e, portanto, apropriado para armas e ferramentas. Feito de cobre e estanho.
- 3700-2000 BCE (aprox.) | The “steppe hypothesis”, which claims that the Indo-European languages spread with these steppe people as late as 3,700 to 2,000 BC. [ here]
- 3500 BCE | Minoan Civilization (Civilização Minóica em Creta) [ here ], which preceded the Mycenaean Civilization [ here ] of Ancient Greece
- 3000 BCE | Chegada na Grécia neolótica da tecnologia da produção do bronze (v. 4000 BCE).
Idade dos Metais — Early Bronze Age I [ 3.300 a 3.000 BCE] [ here ]
- 3000 BCE (?) | Bell-Beaker Culture [ na atual França, Bretanha, peninsula Ibérica] [estudar]
- 3000 BCE | The Minoan Civilization is based on trading activity. Exportação de seus excedentes agrícolas. Para tanto, tinham muitos navios.
Idade dos Metais – Early Bronze Age II [ 3.000 a 2.700 BCE] [ here ]
- 3000-2500 BCE | No antigo Império Egípcio, o faraó é o deus-rei. Na Suméria, celebram-se festivais religiosos. As principais divindades sumérias são a deusa- mãe Innin e seu filho Tamuz; entidades de características semelhantes são adoradas pelos fenícios e hititas.
- 2700-2600 BCE | The Minoan Civilization enters the Bronze Age.
- 2500 BCE | Altura em que a tecnologia do bronze (v. 3000 e 4000 BCE) está disseminada por todas as ilhas da Grécia Antiga.
Idade dos Metais – – Early Bronze Age III [ 2.700 a 2.200 BCE] [ here ]
- 2300 – 2001 BCE | A cobra e o touro são símbolos religiosos na primitiva cultura minóica, em Creta. Culto de Isis e Osíris no Egito. Astarté (Ishtar) é adorada como deusa do amor pelos sumérios e posteriormente pelos fenícios.
Idade dos Metais – – Early Bronze Age IV [ 2.200 a 2.100 BCE] [ here ]
- 2100 – 600 BCE | Cultural estagnation em Mainland Greece. Destructions of cities mark tha arrival of new peoples. The proto-greek had arrived in the scene. Huge wave migration people from the North and East. This theory is the result of modern Linguistics analysis.
- 2100 – 1900 BCE | A fist (of three) wave of Greek speaking people came down into the Peloponese
Idade dos Metais – – Middle Bronze Age I [ 2.100 a 2.000 BCE] [ here ]
Idade dos Metais – – Middle Bronze Age II A [ 2.000 a 1.750 BCE] [ here ]
- 2nd millennium BCE | The term Canaanites serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations—both settled and nomadic-pastoral groups—throughout the regions of the southern Levant or Canaan. It is by far the most frequently used ethnic term in the Bible, which commonly describes Canaanites as a people which, in the Book of Joshua are marked down on a list as one of the nations to be exterminated, and later as a group which the Israelites had annihilated.
- 2000 – 1501 BCE | Surge o Livro dos Mortos, coleção de documentos religiosos da primeira dinastia egípcia. Marduk torna-se o principal deus dos babilônios.
- 2000 – 1500 BCE | Primeras manifestações da religião védica, base do hinduísmo.
Idade dos Metais – – Middle Bronze Age II B [ 1.750 a 1.650 BCE] [ here ]
- 1700 -1600 BCE | Pela primeira vez, Canaã não esteve subjugada pelo Império Egípcio: no período, uma dinastia de faraós do Egito foi originária de Canaã.
- 1600 -1100 BCE | Archaeological attestation of the nameCanaan in Ancient Near Eastern sources relates almost exclusively to the period in which the region operated as a colony of the New Kingdom of Egypt.
Idade dos Metais – – Middle Bronze Age II C [ 1.650 a 1.550 BCE] [ here ]
- 1600 BCE | Hititas se deslocam para a região da atual Turquia
- 1600 BCE | Atlantic Broze Age [ região da atual Frannça, UK, Península Ibérica]
- 1600 -1400 BCE | Houve uma grande erupção vulcânica, com tusunamis, e Creta, fragilizada, foi invadida. [ v. aqui ]
- 1600 – 1100 BCE | Literature – Mycenaean Civilization [ here ] of Ancient Greece. Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600–1100 BC). [ * apartir de 1100 BCE começa a a Greek Dark Age, que vai até 800 BCE]
O termo Civilização Micênica (português brasileiro) ou Civilização Micénica (português europeu) é uma subdivisão regional e temporal da Idade do Bronze do Egeu também conhecido como civilização heládica. Refere-se à sofisticada cultura grega que se desenvolveu no continente grego entre 1 600-1 050 a.C., aproximadamente, no entanto, uma análise das sequências do genoma dos minoicos e micênicos antigos, que viveram 5 000 a 3 000 anos atrás, eram geneticamente similares, tendo pelo menos três quartos de sua ascendência dos primeiros agricultores neolíticos; Eles provavelmente migraram de Anatólia para a Grécia e Creta milhares de anos antes da Idade do Bronze.. O nome deriva de Micenas, nome de um dos mais importantes centros regionais micênicos. Os micênios ou aqueus, pertencentes à raça indo-europeia, iniciaram a incursão ao território grego por volta de 2 000 a.C., chegando a conquistar completamente os habitantes autóctones, os pelágios.
[ ] O uso do termo “Pelasgos” no grego clássico [ here ]
- 1600 BCE | A second (of three) wave of Greek speaking people came down into the Peloponese
Idade dos Metais – – Late Bronze Age I [ 1.550 a 1.400 BCE] [ here ]
- 1517 BCE | The Caananian leadership of Egipt was forcebly exiled. The way of Horus was buit to monitor imigrant traffic and to buffer invatons from the North. Centuries passed and the Middle Bronze age trickled into the Late Bronze age and Ancient Egipt, for a time, became the most powerful Empire in the Western World. Two hundred years after tne Canaanites ruled over the Nile, we have substantial evidence of the power Egipt exercised over Caanan.
- 1500—1400 BCE | Literature – Período em que houve muitas conquistas da Civilização Micênica mediante guerras seguidas de saques. Estas guerras teriam sido esquecidas em razão da descricção poética da Guerra de Tróia, que foi a última grande conquista desta civilizaão e deve ter acontecido por volta de 1400-1300 BCE.
Idade dos Metais – – Late Bronze Age II A [ 1.400 a 1.300 BCE] [ here ]
- 1400 BCE | Literature – Civilização Micênica se expande na costa da Anatólia. Por isso se encontram mediante escavações artefatos micênicos na Anatólia. Homero depois descreve os “Micênicos” [checar o nome] como saqueadores.
- 14th century BCE | Canaan had significant geopolitical importance in theLate Bronze Age Amarna period (14th century BC) as the area where the spheres of interest of the Egyptian, Hittite, Mitanni and Assyrian Empires converged.
- 1400—1200 BCE | Literature – Período em que deve ter ocorrido a Guerra de Tróia, que foi a última grande conquista desta civilização e deve ter acontecido por volta de 1400-1300 BCE.
- 1350 BCE | Cidades importantes da Civilização Micênica são atacadas por outros povos. Começa o declínio desta civilização.
- 1350 BCE | References to Canaanites are also found throughout theAmarna lettersof Pharaoh Akenaton circa 1350 BC. In the Amarna letters (circa 1350 BC), some of which were sent by governors and princes of Canaan to their Egyptian overlord Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) in the 14th century BC, are found, beside Amar and Amurru (Amorites), the two forms Kinahhi and Kinahni, corresponding to Kena and Kena’an respectively, and including Syria in its widest extent, as Eduard Meyer has shown. The letters are written in the official and diplomatic East Semitic Akkadian language of Assyria and Babylonia, though “Canaanitish” words and idioms are also in evidence.
- 1315 BCE | Uma rebelião contra os Hitita ameaça o seu domínio.
Idade dos Metais – – Late Bronze Age II B [ 1.300 a 1.200 BCE] [ here ]
- 1300 BCE | Literature – A third (of three) wave of Greek speaking people came down into the Peloponese. This third wave came with horses, a previously unkown animal in Greece. The began to mingle with the pre-Greek people called Pelasians, though they talked a differente form of Greek.
- 1350 (circa) BCE | By the middle of the thirteen hundreds, Canaan was totally dominated by the Egiptians.
- 1280 BCE | Tratados de Alexander, rei de “Volusa” com o rei hitita Moatalin II. [Há a tese de que este Alexander é Páris,
de Tróia. No mito, Apolo ajuda Páris a matar Aquiles guiando a flecha com que o último é atingido no calcanhar.]
- 1250 BCE | Uma segunda rebelão contra os Hititas liderada por Priamorado novamente. [ Há a tese de que é Priamo, rei de Tróia na Ilíada]. Teria invadido Volusa e a Ilha de Lesbos.
- 1214 BCE | Batalha de Kadesh: Hititas contra Ramsés III (Egito)
- 1213 BCE | Morte de Ramsés II (Egito) [checar. tem algo errado ou aqui ou em 1214 BC]
- 1207 BCE | Canaã estava subjugada ao Império Egípcio
- 1207 BCE | The Libians and many other peooples fought against the Egiptians. Colectively, the sea peoples swept in from West and North, by the time that successive waves of militarized migrants had fully washed ashore. Unaffiliated city states of the western _?_ were earned and broken. Only Assiria, far inland into the east, survived relatively intact. Egipt survived, but it would never again be as powerful as it was. There are many theories as to why the sea peoples invaded at the end of the Bronze Age. Climate change is almost certainly part of the picture. The semi-arid country of the eastern mediterranean likely experienced exceptionally low crop yields over the sucessive years.
- 1207 BCE | The isrealites were one of a number of regional tribes operating in Canaan. The egiptians defeated the isrealites.
- 1206 – 1150 BCE | Late Bronze Age collapse [ here ] A fusion of climate change and mass migration that lead to the end of the Ancient World. The Bronze Age collapse shattered the civilizations of Canaan, not a 600.000 strong invasion force of isrealites who had broken from the gates of Egipt.
Idade dos Metais – Iron Age [ 1.200 BCE a 700 CE] [ here ]
- 1200 BCE | Ancient Celts [ Wikipedia, Forum City]
- 1200 BCE | Extinta a Civilização Micênica. Os Dórios conquistam a região.
- 1100 – 31 BCE | Ancient Greece covering a period from the fall of the Mycenaean civilization in 1100 BC to 146 BC spanning multiple sub-periods including the Greek Dark Ages (or Iron Age, Homeric Age), Archaic period, the Classical period and the Hellenistic period [ here ] [v. video]
- 1168 BCE | Morre Ramsés III. Começa a decadência egípcia.
- 1100 –900 BCE | Dark Age in Greece. [ here ]
- 1100 – 901 BCE | Apogeu do paganismo clássico na Grécia.
- 1100 (circa) BCE | Início provável da tradição oral dos cantos sobre a Ilíada e a Odisséia (descritivos de heróis da Civilização Micênica), que viriam a ser depois complicados pelo existente ou não Homero.
- 1100 – 901 BCE | Religiões panteístas em desenvolvimento na índia.
- 1000 – 800 BCE | Os arianosconquistam o vale do Ganges. As tribos teutônicas se estabelecem no norte da Europa [Germanic peoples, Balt peoples] . As primeiras tribos latinas e etruscas surgem na Itália. A península ibérica e as atuais Ilhas Britânicas são invadidas por tribos celtas.
- 931 BCE | As doze tribos que formavam a nação hebraica se separam. As dez do norte tornam-se conhecidas como o Reino de Israel; as duas do sul, como Reino de Judá.
- Origens citas dos povos germanos
- Ancient Germanic Culture [ Wikipedia, Forum City]
- 900 – 480 BCE | Archaic Age in Greece. [ here ]
- 878 BCE | Os fenícios fundam Cartago.
- 800 – 750 (circa) BCE | Literature – Provável período em que talvez tenha vivido Homero e escrito os cantos orais sobre a Ilíada e a Odisséia existentes desde aproximadamente 1100 BCE (descritivos de heróis da Civilização Micênica).
- 800 BCE | Literature – Os povos da civilização Micênica, que foram expulsos pelos Dórios da região, migraram para o leste do mediterrâneo, onde tiveram contato com os feníncios, de quem pegaram emprestado o alfabeto arábico que temos hoje. [v. video ] Finda, com isso, o período chamado de Greek Dark Age e a Grécia Antiga forma, nesse novo período chamado de arcaico, um império que toma todo o mediterrâneo.
- 800 – 450 BCE | Cultura celta Hallstatt [ Wikipedia]
- 800 – 701 BCE | Surgimento dos grandes profetas (Amós, Oséias e Isaías), que combatem abusos religiosos e sociais em Israel.
- 750 BCE | Near East was divided in many small kingdom and city-states: Israel, Judah, Philistine, Aram Damascus, Ammon, Moab, Phoenician, Nineveh [ v. video ]. At his time, people in Israel worshiped many gods, including Yahweh.
- 752 BCE | Medontidai archon/basileus of Athens was pre-eminent in Attica ca. 900-750 BCE – The synoecism of Attica took place at 752 BCE.
- 750 – 500 BCE | Literature – Período em da poesia lírica na Grécia Antiga [Sappho (630-570), auge em 582 DCE; Pindar). in the Aegean World. The genre called Greek Lyric Poetry is most often associated with the years from 750 do 500 BCE, a period which historians call Greece’s Archaic Age. (v. Sappho)
- 735 BCE | Data provável da fundação de Roma.
- 722 BCE | Samaria fell into to the Assirian Empire. [ v. video]. Part of the population then fled to the kingdom of Judah and Jerusalem.
- 700 – 601 BCE | Josias, rei de Judá, proclama o Templo de Jerusalém o único santuário legítimo de Jeová e centro da religião nacional.
- 700 BCE | Macedônia
- 700 | Literature – Mais um menos entre os séculos Século VIII (800-700) e VIII (600-700) BCE — Hesíodo escreveu sua Teogonia.
- 698 – 620 BCE | Período em que teria vivido Salomão, do Antigo Testamento [segundo Arqueólogos, ele não existiu. Sua história é ficção criada um século depois]
- 681 BCE | Athens – The rule of three annually elected archons (eponymous, basileus and polemarch) was introduced in Athens.
- 657 – 625 BCE | Governação de Corinto pelo tirano Cípselo, o que marcou o final da fase áurea da cidade em razão da ascenção de Atenas.
Corinto [ here ] — A cidade surgiu na Era Neolítica, aproximadamente em 6000 a.C. Existem várias versões sobre a fundação da cidade. Os coríntios da época de Pausânias (geógrafo) diziam que a cidade havia sido fundada por Corintos, filho de Zeus, e que Éfira, filha de Oceano, foi a primeira moradora da região (que se chamava Efireia).
Corinto foi uma das mais florescentes cidades gregas da Antiguidade Clássica, tendo sido autônoma e soberana durante o Período Arcaico da história da Grécia. Desde aqueles tempos, Corinto experimentou um notável desenvolvimento comercial devido à sua localização, o que trouxe benefícios sobre as artes (principalmente seus vasos de cerâmica) e a cultura de um modo geral, bem como a acumulação de riquezas pela aristocracia local. Contudo, no final dessa fase áurea, a pólis foi governada por um tirano denominado Cípselo, provavelmente entre 657 a.C. e 625 a.C., quando iniciou-se um curto período de expansionismo em que foram fundadas colônias no noroeste da Grécia.
- 632 BCE | Athens – Full aristocratic revolution has taken hold. Athens [ here ] — By the 6th century BC, widespread social unrest led to the reforms of Solon. These would pave the way for the eventual introduction of democracy by Cleisthenesin 508 BC.
- 630 BCE | Nascimento de Zoroastro, fundador da religião persa.
- 630 — 570 BCE | Literature – Período provável em que viveu Sappho.
- 632 BCE | Athens – Cylon unsucessfully attempted to establish an Athenian tyranny. [ here ] [ # draconiano ]
- 621 BCE | Athens – Draco enacted first written constitution in Athenian history [ here ]
- 612 BCE | Nineveh falls to the Babylons. Egypt and Babylon would then compete for territories of the old empire. [v. video ]
- 605 – 562 BCE | Reinado de Nabucodonsor II. Apogeu babilônio.
- 604 BCE | Nascimento de Laotsé, a quem se atribui a fundação do taoísmo.
- 600 BCE | Cartago (Carthage)
- 600 — 400 BCE | Literature — As commerce and trade made aristochrats get wealthy through luck and inovation, all of a sudden, individuality and the importance of individual experience and wisdom must have seem newly valuabe during the six hundreds and five hundreds BCE in the Aegean World. So Sappho’s [v. 582 BCE] love lyrics, timeless as they seem to us, may have partly been the outcome of economic and cultural events taking place in eastern Ancient Greece and western Anatolia during the decades that she lived.
- 600 – 300 BCE | As tribos teutônicas invadem a Europa Ocidental. Os alamanos se estabelecem no Reno Superior; os francos e os saxões entre o Wesser e o Elba; os turíngios, no sul.
- Origens celtasdos bávarose dos austríacos [ Forum City ]
- Origens nóricas(góticas, escandinavas) dos austríacos
- 597 BCE | Forças da Babilônia (atual Iraque) destroem as cidades da costa de Canaã.
- 594 -593 BCE | Sólon é o legislador de Atenas.
- 587 BCE | Forças da Babilônia se viram para Jerusalém. Começo do exílio do povo israelense na Babilônia, que vai até 538 BCE, quando Ciro, da Pérsia, conquista a Babilônia.
- 587 BCE | Forças da Babilônia se viram para Jerusalém. Começo do exílio do povo israelense na Babilônia, que vai até 538 BCE, quando Ciro, da Pérsia, conquista a Babilônia.
- 586 BCE | Diáspora dos judeus para a Babilônia — Os babilônios, sob o rei Nabucodonosor II capturaram Jerusalém, destruíram o templo de Salomão, puseram um fim à dinastia davídica e levaram o povo cativo. Somente os mais pobres foram deixados em Judá, agora a provincial babilônica de Yehud com sua capital em Mispá, ao norte de Jerusalém. Alguns anos depois, de acordo com a Bíblia, o governador de Yehud foi morto por rivais, desencadeando um outro êxodo de refugiados, desta vez para o Egito. Assim, cerca de 580 pessoas do povo de Judá podiam ser encontradas em três localidades separadas: a elite na Babilônia (onde aparentemente foram bem tratados), uma grande comunidade no Egito, e um remanescente em Judá.
- 582 BCE | Literature – Sappho’s (630-570 BCE) work is begining to be known throughout Aegean World. Shappo is prising the world of impetuous, passionate, personal love, over the world of disciplined eligience to one’s nation. She is also saying that over and above the obligations that she might have to her city-state and its military apparatus, she chooses the private world of personal relationshipe. To many critics, the birth of what are called “monodies”, or songs for single singers, and the fact that these monodies began to share the stages with choruses or songs for group singers with dancers signifies a great cultural transition in Ancient Greece. To William M. Calders, the difference between The Age of Homer and the Age of Sappho demonstrates that “the conflict between Monarchy and Aristocracy had began. Most importantly, for Poetry, the poet had began to emerge as an individual speaking for himself, not an impersonal celebrant of glory and doom.” In fact, to M. Calder, the assimetrical development of Poetry in Archaic Greece was a result the wilder and richer cultural influences in the easter egean, where Sappho lived. Again, M. Calder writes: “it seems to have been the regions of the eastern greeks, the eolians and iolians of the Asia Minor and the islands which proved most receptive to the new spirit. Meawhile, as Sparta, the heart of the younger western or dorian branch of greek culture, the spartans were the nearest aproximations among the Greeks to the colectivistic mentality. It is therefore fitting that their gift to the lyric age should have been the most collectiv form, the choral ode, significantly most of the earlier of its lyrical poetry were from the east, the older culture.
The turn to more autobiographical personally reflective poems may have been the result of a widespread cultural transition from politically __ groups , like monarquies and tiranies to capitalist city-states. In a moarchy, your personal experiences are subjected to the collective’s greater good. As commerce and trade made aristochrats get wealthy throught luck and innovation, all of a sudden, individuality and the importance of individual experience and wisdom must have seen the newly valuable throught the 600 and 500 BCE through the egean world. So Sappho’s love lyrics may have partly been the outcome of economic and cultural events taking place in eastern Greece and western Anatolia during the decades that she lived.
- 561 – 527 BCE | Período em que Peisistratos foi tirano na Grécia. [ here ] Peisistratus was the brother-in-law of Cleisthenes; however, Peisistratus was much older.
- 546 – 510 BCE | Peisistratids is the common term for the three tyrants who ruled in Athens from 546 to 510 BC, namely Peisistratos and his two sons, Hipparchusand Hippias.
▪ 550 BCE | Nascimento de Sidarta Gautama.
- 539 BCE | The Achaemenid Persian empire takes over Babylon.
- 538 BCE | Oexílio babilônico do povo israelense terminou quando Ciro, o Grande da Pérsia conquistou a Babilônia (tradicionalmente 538 a.C.). Os persas reconstituíram Judá/Yehud como província (“Yehud medinata“) dentro da satrapia “Além do Rio”, e ao longo do século seguinte alguns dos exilados retornaram a Jerusalém. Lá eles eventualmente reconstruíram o Templo (tradicionalmente 516/515 a.C.), mas por mais de um século a capital administrative permaneceu em Mispá. They would then rebuild the foundations of Jewish Culture by building the Temple of Solomon and writing The Torah. Ciro apontou Zorobabel (o neto do penúltimo rei de Judá, Jeoiaquim) para governador, mas não permitiu a restauração do reino. A Samaria, nesse ínterim, continuou como a província de Semarina dentro da mesma satrápia que Yehud.
- 525 BCE | Literature – Nascimento de Ésquilo (Aeschylus) [ here ] The day Aeschylus was born, Athens was an unremarkable second rate dictatorship, indistiguishable from ist neighbors, which was ruled a par
- 518 – 443 BCE | Literature – Pindar [importante poeta grego, tanto quanto Sappho] is born. [ here ]
- 510 – 323 BCE | Classical Greece / Hellenic period [ here ] — Corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in 510 BC and the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC).
- 510 BCE | Aeschylus, then a 15 year-old, saw Athens at war for the first time. A spartan invasion force, lead by an athenian named Clystenis [ here ], crushed the opressive tyrant who has been ruling in Athens. Clytenis then pushed for democrarcy. A democracy that controlled the oceans of the eastern Mediterranean.
[ In 510 BC, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow their king, the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy headed by Isagoras. But his rival Cleisthenes, with the support of the middle class and aided by democrats, took over. Cleomenes intervened in 508 and 506 BC [ Aeschylus was a 18 year-old] , but could not stop Cleisthenes, now supported by the Athenians [a gigantic popular uprise]. Through Cleisthenes’ reforms, the people endowed their city with isonomic institutions — equal rights for all citizens (though only men were citizens)—and established ostracism.
The isonomic and isegoric (equal freedom of speech) democracy was [by 504 BCE, when Aeschylus was 20] first organized into about 130 demes [regional blocks~], which became the basic civic element [in order to restructure the countryside around Athens into deems, to resist old tendencies and feudal centers around the citiy by broking the countryside up into small sections, fracturing old power structure] . The 10,000 citizens exercised their power as members of the assembly (ἐκκλησία, ekklesia), headed by a council of 500 citizens chosen at random. ]
During these years, Aeschylus again experienced war, as spartans returned and tried to take the city that had rebelled a few years earlier. Sparta failed along with its northenr allies.
A so it was that the athenians found themselves suddenly a great power, not just in one field, but in everything they set their minds to. They gave vivid proof of equality and freedom of speech might achieve.
▪ 508 – 507 BCE | The term “democracy” first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought in the city-state of Athens during classical antiquity.The word comes from demos, “common people” and kratos, strength. Led by Cleisthenes, Athenians established what is generally held as the first democracy in 508–507 BC. Cleisthenes is referred to as “the father of Athenian democracy.”
Athens [ here ] — By the 6th century BC, widespread social unrest led to the reforms of Solon. These would pave the way for the eventual introduction of democracy by Cleisthenes in 508 BC.
Athenian democracy took the form of a direct democracy, and it had two distinguishing features: the random selection of ordinary citizens to fill the few existing government administrative and judicial offices, and a legislative assembly consisting of all Athenian citizens. All eligible citizens were allowed to speak and vote in the assembly, which set the laws of the city state. However, Athenian citizenship excluded women, slaves, foreigners (μέτοικοι / métoikoi), non-landowners, and men under 20 years of age.[contradictory] The exclusion of large parts of the population from the citizen body is closely related to the ancient understanding of citizenship. In most of antiquity the benefit of citizenship was tied to the obligation to fight war campaigns.
Athenian democracy was not only direct in the sense that decisions were made by the assembled people, but also the most direct in the sense that the people through the assembly, boule and courts of law controlled the entire political process and a large proportion of citizens were involved constantly in the public business.Even though the rights of the individual were not secured by the Athenian constitution in the modern sense (the ancient Greeks had no word for “rights”), the Athenians enjoyed their liberties not in opposition to the government but by living in a city that was not subject to another power and by not being subjects themselves to the rule of another person.
▪ 500 BCE – 500 AD | Período de domínio do Império Romano.
▪ 500 – 404 BCE | Golden Age Athens.
This century is essentially studied from the Athenian outlook because Athens has left us more narratives, plays, and other written works than the other ancient Greek states. From the perspective of Athenian culture in Classical Greece, the period generally referred to as the 5th century BC extends slightly into the 4th century BC. In this context, one might consider that the first significant event of this century occurs in 508 BC, with the fall of the last Athenian tyrant and Cleisthenes’ reforms. However, a broader view of the whole Greek world might place its beginning at the Ionian Revolt of 500 BC, the event that provoked the Persian invasion of 492 BC. The Persians were defeated in 490 BC. A second Persian attempt, in 481-479 BC, failed as well, despite having overrun much of modern-day Greece (north of the Isthmus of Corinth) at a crucial point during the war following the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisium.The Delian League then formed, under Athenian hegemony and as Athens’ instrument. Athens’ excesses caused several revolts among the allied cities, all of which were put down by force, but Athenian dynamism finally awoke Sparta and brought about the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. After both forces were spent, a brief peace came about; then the war resumed to Sparta’s advantage. Athens was definitively defeated in 404 BC, and internal Athenian agitations mark the end of the 5th century BC in Greece.
Golden Age of Athenian democracy [ here ] The decades that followed became known as the Golden Age of Athenian democracy, during which time Athens became the leading city of Ancient Greece, with its cultural achievements laying the foundations for Western civilization. The playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides flourished in Athens during this time, as did the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, the physician Hippocrates, and the philosopher Socrates. Guided by Pericles, who promoted the arts and fostered democracy, Athens embarked on an ambitious building program that saw the construction of the Acropolis of Athens (including the Parthenon), as well as empire-building via the Delian League. Originally intended as an association of Greek city-states to continue the fight against the Persians, the league soon turned into a vehicle for Athens’s own imperial ambitions. The resulting tensions brought about the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), in which Athens was defeated by its rival Sparta.
▪ 500 – 400 BCE | Literature – Ancient Geek Drama, which represents the war between private life and public life – The plays of the four most famous greek dramatists, and these are Esquiles, Sofocles, Euripedes and Aristofanes, were mostly created during the four hundreds BCE in and around the city of Athens. This was a century bookened (?) by terrible wars: the Persian Wars against Dario (em Português) and Xerxes, in which Esquiles fought, and the peloponesian war, of the last quarter of the four hundreds, which Aristofanes tiredly criticized and lampooned[?]. It was a century during which a form of democracy spured the creation of a navy and army staffed not by slaves or foreigners, but by infranchized[?] native athenians. These athenians citizens soldiers, when they went into battle, cripped their shields and their hors[?] with a sense of belonging and pride and civic identity that humann history had never before seen in such a volume, these athenians had, in short, a sense of being part of a colective, a place, rison[?] a of ideas and decisions in which each soldier and each sailor had a say, and each citizen mattered. City-States in the time of Pindar, Esquiles and the later athenians dramatists were nothing new, but the historical record we have from the four hundreds of ancient Greece show something novel: a sense of interdependent collectivisim that began around 508 BCE and was quickly hammered into something extraordinary by the fire of the persion wars. By all rigths, the small experimental political system of Athens shouldn’t have stood a chance against its first existencial threat, the equally brilliant and novel world empire of the persians, and often the wars between Ahtens and its persian nemesis have been imagined as a battle between red blood and freedom loving greeks and mindless subjects of persian despotism.
Fifth century Athens may have been a city-state with a brand new democracy, but it was also a city-state where influential men could and did achieve desproportional amount of political power and use this power for their own self-engrandisement[?] and profit. Demistecles, Pericles, Aristedis, Niceas, Cleonte, as unique and extraordinary as some as these people were, they were also the separate but equal superiors of the common citizen-soldier. That tension between the poets role as a public entertainer and the private individual, between his public civic duties and his private emotions and ambitions, this tension leads us needly into one of the most famous epochs of Ancient History, that of Classical Greece. During this epoch, the avarage greek citizen faced dual and often contraditory obligations: the obligation to self and the obligation to city, or polis. To put personal good or desire for knowledge or the pursue of material gain above the well-being of our neighbors, even our families. To the classical greek, this was a crime, called “hubrous”[?]. But “hubrous” the greeks knew could sometimes work to the advantage of the State. In the wars fought by classical Athens, it was not just the inventive new scheme of democracy that put spirit into the cities navy and army and help them prevail. Athens also succeded because of the fear ambition of an inner circle of elite citizens whose ambition greatly strenghtened the city’s power and security.
- 499 e primeiros anos dos 400 BCE | Literature – The drama of Golden Age Athens was created during a century sandwiched by two wars: the Persian Wars, at the beginning of the four hundreds, and the Peloponnesian War [ here ].
- 499 – 479 BCE | The Greco-Persian wars took place. These were the wars in which the Battle of Themopole took place, the greatl naval Battle of Salamis (in 480 BCE) and the decisive victory in the Battle of Potia (in 479 BCE).
- 499 e primeiros anos dos 400 BCE | The Persian Empire had became embroiled in an increasingly expensive and draining border war with athenians, spartans, corinthians and tiebens.
- 498 BCE |The Persian King heard of the restructuring of power in Athens. It was of great interest since his brother held a capital in the west part of present day Turkey, just across the Egean from Athens. Athenians and their allies all rising in power to the west rebelled throughout western Turkey and burned this city to the groud. This insurrection took place around 498 BCE, when Aeschylus was 17 years-old.
- 498 BCE | Aeschylus saw one of the most remarkable people in Ancient Greek come into influence in Athens. His name was Themistocles [ here ]. Themistocles believed in the navy: over and above armies, they could master on land. He believed tha if the atheniens could control the water, they could control the Aegean World. Themistocles agitated for militarization. And it was a good time to be thinking about militarization: to the east, in the Aegean, Persia had taken the large and famous island of Mileadas, the one of Greece’s intelectual and cultural centres; in the Argives, a people to the north and west of Sparta and Athens consolidated an allience with Persia.
- 492 BCE | Aeschylus was 33 and a gigantic Persian flee began making its way down into the Aegean, conquering territories in present day Bulgaria and Macedonia.
- 490 BCE | Persia had conquered more aegean territory. And they bowed down on Athens. Aeschylus was 35 years-old. He had been at ground zero for a number of terrifcly important moments in Ancient History and he was about to see more.
- 490 BCE | Literature – Battle of Marathon — Batalha de Maratona entre Gregos e Persas. Aeschylus (Ésquilo) fought in the Battle of Marathon against the Persian Empire. This event (the Battle of Marathon) was something so pivotal, and so definitive to the History of Athens, that it actually overshadowed all of old Aeschylus’ dramatic achievement as an author.
You have to think that their new national identity as a democracy must have been intermingled with the sense that they were there voluntarily and that, just as in peace time, each man was partially responsible for the rights and well-being of his neighbors.
What happened next was one of the most underdog [“zebra”, no sentido usado no futebol] victories in Ancient History.
[ Wikipedia — The Persian Wars played a large role in the playwright’s life and career. In 490 BC, Aeschylus and his brother Cynegeirus fought to defend Athens against the invading army of Darius I of Persia at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians emerged triumphant, a victory celebrated across the city-states of Greece. Cynegeirus, however, died in the battle, receiving a mortal wound while trying to prevent a Persian ship retreating from the shore, for which his countrymen extolled him as a hero.
In 480, Aeschylus was called into military service again, this time against Xerxes I‘s invading forces at the Battle of Salamis, and perhaps, too, at the Battle of Plataea in 479. Ion of Chios was a witness for Aeschylus’s war record and his contribution in Salamis. Salamis holds a prominent place in The Persians, his oldest surviving play, which was performed in 472 BC and won first prize at the Dionysia.
Aeschylus was one of many Greeks who were initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries, an ancient cult of Demeter based in his hometown of Eleusis. Initiates gained secret knowledge through these rites, likely concerning the afterlife. Firm details of specific rites are sparse, as members were sworn under the penalty of death not to reveal anything about the Mysteries to non-initiates. Nevertheless, according to Aristotle, Aeschylus was accused of revealing some of the cult’s secrets on stage. ]
In both Battle of Marathon and Battle of Salamis, the Greeks scored unlikely triumphs, since they were proportially vastly outnumbered, due to their superior equipment and military tattics. So Aeschylus had been hip deep in the most s risky hellraising battles in Athenian History. By the time of his death, he was venerated for the literature that he produced, but even more so, he was venerated for this military service.
- 480 BCE | When athenians won The Battle of Salamis (in 480 BCE), Sophocles was selected to lead a ceremony procession. He was 16 year-old and was chosen because he seemed to his elders to embody the spirit of athenian youth. Victory in the Greco-Persian wars meant that the city of Athens was no longer crawling along on four legs (the morning of its democracy): those wars caused the athenian system to mature and to mature quickly.
- 450 (+-) — BCE (middle of the four hundrens) | Athens’ silver mines caused the city to become very rich. One could say the the middle of the four hundred was the blazing bright afternoon of the city of Athens, during which it marched on two legs around the provinces of its empire.
- 462 — BCE | In 462 BC, Ephialtes [ here ] put through reforms which deprived the Areopagus of almost all its functions except that of a murder tribunal in favour of Heliaia. Esta medida foi impopular entre os aristocratas e levou ao seu assassinato em 461 a.C..
In The Eumenides of Aeschylus (458 BC), the Areopagus is the site of the trial of Orestes [ Literature ] for killing his mother (Clytemnestra) and her lover (Aegisthus).
- 456 — BCE | Literature – Morre Ésquiles, considerado o pai da Tragédia [ here ]– Os mais conhecidos autores de tragédias são Ésquiles, Sófocles e Eurípedes: os mais conhecidos por suas comédias são Aristófanes e Menandro, e Pátrinas foi um grande escritor de sátiras. Essas peças escritas há 2500 anos são representadas até hoje. Elas tratam dos sentimentos mais profundos dos seres humanos, que não mudaram desde a Grécia antiga, como, por exemplo, o amor, o ódio, o ciúme e a inveja.
- 450 – 330 BCE | The Persian Empire. Their religion, Zoroastrianism [ here ] , was a main contributor to the gestation of Christianity.
- 450 – 401 BCE | A Torá, ou Pentateuco. torna-se a essência moral do Estado judeu. Os anos 400 BCE foram de prosperidade em Canaã, razão por que houve a possibilidade de dedicação aos estudos das escrituras. This period was called the Post-Exliic
- 450 BCE até o início do domínio romano | Cultura celta La Tène. Em 450 BCE se iniciou a migração para as lhas britânicas
[ Wiipedia , Forum City ]
- 443 BCE | Apogeu ateniense sob a liderança de Péricles.
- 443 BCE | Philosophy and Literature | The idea of pre-socratics and, then, Socrates then and evertthing afterwards, is a bit like the christian one of BCE and AD: in both cases, a singular pivotal figure is the fold around which History is understood.
The historical Socrates [ here ] lived from about 470/469 to 399 BCE. Socrates was about 25 years younger than Sophocles and the play Antigone would have come out around Socrates’ 31th birthday. In all probability, the philosopher Socrates would have seen the great playright Sophocles’ award winnig play as at the city Dionysia in 441 BCE and as all with greek tragedy , Atigone was a play that explored contemporary philosophical questions vital to classical Athens.
Socrates, however, would not have been the only philosopher present in the theatre in the spring 441 BCE. In 441, Athens was an imperial powerhouse, with rivers of silver flowing into its coffers and amazing construction projects rising up in the Acropolis. In addition to architechts, and finaciers, and opportunists of all sorts, the city was also filled with intelectuals. Some of these intelectuals were philosophers, whom posterity would nickname sophists.
Let’s talk about those sophists. If you’ve taken a Philosophy 101 course and you remember just one thing about ancient greek Philosophy, it is problably that the philosopher Plato wrote dialogues in which his teacher, Socrates, engaged in long debates with other thinkers, that Socrates’ method debate was pose questions to his fellow conversants and that this style of argumentation is called the socratic method. So Socrates lived first and when he was about 45 his pupil Plato was born and a huge amount of Plato has been preserved, through which we have most of what we know about the philosophical climate of Athens in the mid to late four hundreds.
All of this is old news to any listener of educational podcasts. Now let’s take it up one simple level. The platonic dialogues show Socrates talking to a lot of different people on a lot of differente subjects, generally, winning them over by his spellbounding and occasionally irritating use of the socratic method. Who were these people? Why does Socrates argue with them page after page, dialogue after dialogue? Many of them – not all of them, but many of them — were sophists. These men had philosophical ideas that were disagreeable to Socrates and, more importantly, Socrates’ star pupil, Plato.
Let’s build a T-chart: On the left-hand side is Socrates/Plato; on the right-hand side are the sophists. We’re going to nail down the biggest differences between them.
Left-hand column: Socrates and Plato were religiously orthodox; and, in fact, it’s common place in scholarship to compare their philosophy to christianity, since their philosoply valued discipline and temperance and mind over matter. Plato sought out the eternal truisms for ethical self-conduct and the organization of the universe arguing famously that a supersensory realm of forms exists and that this world beyond the senses is a paramount tier of reality.
The willing death of Socrates at the hands of the Athenian state in 399 BCE is unmisteakably the story of a great mother pershing for his beliefs and it surely reasonated with generations of christian intelectuals who read it and copied it throughout Antiquity . Of all the hundreds of ancient philosophers who might have made it down to us, it’s not a coincidence that so much Plato was copied in the sciptoriums of the Middle Ages. With important execptions, Plato and his philosophical successors have been coopted and spliced with christianity for 2000 years.
So, the left side of our T-chart is pretty easy. The Socrates/Plato team assembled a nice duty ethical and metaphisical system that very often looks and smells like christianity. They urged people to be moderate, to control their impulses, always strive toward virtue, to be true to themselves and that the world of senses was a lower tier of reality. What were they defining themselves against, though? Plato’s surviving body of works is too enormous for a single generalization, but we can still say that one of the things Socrates and Plato were speaking up against was sophism. That takes us to the right-hand side of the T‑Chart.
Right-hand column: “Sophist”, originally just meant professor and the sophist were a group active in the greek-speaking world, particularly in Athens, as professors of rethoric and argumentation. In the Athens of the philosopher Socrates and the playright Sophocles, rethoric and argumentation were probably the most important tools at the disposal of an ambitious man. The city’s most famous men, Themisteclis and Pericles and, later, Aclebiades were frequently also it’s most capable orators.
So, the sophists were instructurs who professionally taught speech and rethoric to the wealthy youth of Athens. The problem for Socrates and Plato was that the teachings of some of the more proeminant sophists were directly contradictory to many of the core tenants of platonic philosophy. Antigone were staged for a specific audiance and that within that audience would have been a group of professional instructors, again the sophists, who were the most respected intellectuals of the day. Sophism and its grouchy opponnent Socrates were two major forces at work in the Athens of Sophocles and I think it’s worth a couple of minutes to explore that teachings of the lesser known group, the sophists, because I believe that when we finish filling out that right-hand column of out T-Chart, you’ll see that Sophocles’ Antigone, like many great works of World Literature, may seem timeless and enduring, but at its inception, it may have been about very local and very contemporary themes.
There are about ten sophists on whom we have information from various sources — mostly [the sources] Plato, but also Aristoteles, the 3rd-century BCE historian Diogenes Laertes, and the later roman historian Plutarc.
All of them are worth study in detail. We’re just going to talk about two sophists: First generation sophist whom Plato deals with extensively in the socratic Dialogues. The word “sophistry” means using fallacious premises that seem plausable on the surface in order to construct an argument. For instance [Antigone], you might tell your sister that you’re going to get yourself killed beacause you earnestly believe that a proper burial to you brother was more important than your own live; or you might tell your niece that she have to die in order to serve the interests of the State – that didn’t acctualy want her to die. Generally, the word “sophistry” means the assembly of logically unsound arguments. We see a lot of those arguments in the play Antigone.
The reason that we have this word ̶ again, “sophistry” ̶ and that it’s a negative word is Plato. Plato’s Socrates dismantles the philosophical systems of various contemporary thinkers. Down they go round after round disassembled by the swiss army knife of the Socratic method. And so it seems throught long stratagies of the platonic dialogues that the sophists were a mob of interchangeable gray beards all spending a lot of flimflam [nonsense].
Only they weren’t. They definetly weren’t. You only have to know one thing about Plato and one general fact about the sophists to understand why we need a T‑chart for them. Let’s start with Plato. Particularly in the dialogue __ _- and in the Book 7 of The Republic, Plato works out his famous alegory, maybe the most famous alegory in western Philosophy. This alegory is that most of us as trapped in a world of false impressions, like imprisioned people watching the shadows of things on a cave wall and believing that those shadows are reality. To Plato, though, a certain kind of person – a philosopher, of course – can scape from this ilusory lower form of reality and go out into the blinding daylight of real trees, and the moon, and the sun. This lucky philosopher, because of his unique make‑up, can percieve and understand the real essences of things, not just the hundred milllon imperfect tables out there in the world, but the ideal, orginal table from which all other tables are made. The philosopher, in short, in Plato’s philosophy, has acess to the world of forms, the world of original templates form which all imperfect earthly things are made. That’s one of the core tenants of platonic philosophy. Frankly, I’m surprised that this teory made it very far. I mean what if I, as a podcaster, say “only podcasters had acess to the paramount tier of reality”? Would people notice perhaps that my philosophy was self-congradulatory? Anyway, that’s The Alegory of the Cave and The Theory of Forms. The most important thing to remember about it from now, as far as the sophists are concerned, is that Plato did believe that a priviledged selection of humankind could comprehend a level of truths that were absolut and universal. Again, Plato believed in absolut and universal truths .
Finally, that take us to the sophists, right side of the T‑Chart. The sophists generally did not share Plato’s belief that a realm of an absolut reality exists beyond our senses. In fact, against Plato’s metaphisical system building aproach to Phylosophy, the sophists generally preached scepticism and subjectivity . The sophists were fascinated by the fact that reality is radically different from person to person. Being rethorictians and orators, the sophists understood that even in the center of the civilized world – the assembly of Athens, for them — truths could meld and evolve and turn on their heads. Any argument, the sophists knew, had an inverse. And within the realm of human brain, truisms and ethics, and even sensory perception, all have a capacity to change.
What – the sophists wondered — was anyone doing talking about gods or universal thruths, when we couldn’t even agree on whether or not a wind was cold. What were we doing talking about an unchanging reality when we couldn’t agree on which soup was tasty and which one is was yucky.
Now you have that T‑Chart in your mind: Plato on the left; sophists on the right. You know that Plato believed in a two-tier reality with a sort of sludge of everyday people and false sense impressions in the bottom tier, and a shiny realm of philophers and true forms on the top tier. And you know that sophists, who were generally sceptical of any universal truisms, would have dismissed Plato’s alegory of the cave and the theory of forms as hilarious stupid, if more of their writings had survived in bulk. Assuming that a 30-year old Socrates was there at the theatre of Dionisious in 441 BCE when Antigone was first staged, we can also assume that a certain sophist were there too. This sophist was a well-funded teacher who had prepared countless youths for carrers in politics. Just three years earlier he had worked with the city’s de facto ruler Pericles on the constitution of a new colony in southern Italy. We would have been about 49-years old, and his name was Protagoras [ here ].
Socrates, at this point still young and hungry, would have looked at the older Protagoras as a man within a stablished civic and philosophical reputation. As the first lines of Antigone were spoken, that dialogue between Ismene and Antigone, we can imagine Socrates staring across orchestra at the wealthy and reputable sophist philosopher Protagoras and maybe concocting some of his own ideas, those famous socratic virtues of moderation and diet, the relinguish of material possessions and phisical __. These were exactly the kinds of virtues that might enties a hungy young intelectual Socrates as he looked at Protagoras. The whole of platonic philosophy might have been born right there in 441 BCE at the premiere of Antigone. Of course, that’s an unfounded suposition, but it’s not impossible.
Anyway, let’s get back to the facts. Whether or not Socrates and Protagoras attended Antigone in 441 BCE and whether they knew about one another at that juncture, we do know a bit about Protagoras’ philosophy from several differente sources. Like many pre-socratcis philophers we’ve met, postertity has assigned Protagoras a simple quotable timelime: “Man is the measure of all things.” This is a quote about human subjectivity and relativism. It means that each of us is confined inexorably to the filters of our own perception and that we cannot, either individually or as a collective, transcend our subjectivity. This is probably the most famous quote in sophist philosophy and it’s certainly the heart of what we know about Protagoras. Protagoras was famously an agnostic and evidently believing that if he couldn’t event trust his own sense of perceptions, that was little cause to feel any confidence about the existence of divine beings. And also famoulsy Protagoras was, accordingly to one source, “the first to claim that there are two contradictory arguments about everthing”. It was a common rethorical exercice in the four hundreds BCE to argue something and then create a counterargument of equal weight.
Arguing and then counterarguing against had the effect that any statement seem like a little more than nicely arranged bundle of words. These words and literary devices can be used to manipulate human subjectivity into believe in anything and anytime. In a political culture the made decisions base on the rethoric of powerful speeches – not based on data or qualitative analysis – the power of speech must have seemed something almost supernatural. In fact, another sophist, Gorgias [ here ], thought a lot about the power of speech. Along with Protagoras, he forms the first generation of Sophists.
So Sophism [ here ] is a philosophy that endores relativism and scepticism and plays a specially close attention to the power of language to form and distort our perception of reality. To sophist, we can’t ever aprehend any timeless on the present truths, because our reality is just shifting curtains of sense perception; curtains that can be manipulated by skilled orators ans wordsmiths.
Sophism, over the past 2000 years of western philosophical history, has seemed a bit scary or nosy inducing. After all, Plato and christianity, and Islam also share most of Plato’s core convictions that there is an unchanging divine reality which is understandable to certain selected individuals and that certain speech divinely inspired and immortaly true. These ideas have been common place for thousand of years, but when we put Protagoras’ most famous idea that “man is the measure of all things” next to them, all of a suddent we’re confronted with the vertigo inducing idea that all speech, and all writing is simply the ductile and sleepery outgrowth of human subjectivity.
Plato spars wiht Sophism in dialogue after dialogue. But in spite of its seemingly radical scepticism, Sophism, once in the hands of a thinker like Decartes, begin to catalyze the scientific revolution. And the idea that language shapes our reality has been main line in humanity scholarship from the Sapir‑Whorf Hypothesis [ here ] throught the mostly french post-modernism the pervaded the 1980’s and 1990’s. Far from being a bunch of feeble, nihilistic scribblers, as Plato often depicts them, the sophists are powerful thinkers whose ideas have pervaded the world of Philosophy since the Enlightment.
Plato spars with Sophism in dialogue after dialogue. But in spite of its seemingly radical scepticism, Sophism, once in the hands of a thinker like Decartes, begin to catalyze the scientific revolution. And the idea that language shapes our reality has been main line in humanity scholarship from the Sapir Whorf Hypothesis [ here ] throught the mostly french post-modernism the pervaded the 1980’s and 1990’s. Far from being a bunch of feeble, nihilistic scribblers, as Plato often depicts them, the Sophists were powerful thinkers whose ideas have pervaded the world of Philosophy since the Enlightment.
So, we’ve taken a little aside form Antigone [ here ], but I think it has been a practical and useful one. Now it’s time to open up Antigone once more.
Antigone is a play that criticizes hubris, or excessive pride. It’s in many ways a play about what happens when people stick to their convictions against all advice to the contrary. The play opens with Ismene trying to tell Antigone to please not throw her life away so that some dirt can be scattered over Polonise’s corps. The plays come to a climax when the frightening inflexible Creonte, ignoring the eloquant council of his own son, and the general of Teban’s town people, buries his niece alive. In both the case of Antigone and the case of Creonte, a certain inflexible dedication to principles comes to the forefront. This inflexible dedication to principles takes us back to the main ideia of this episode, which is in its title: “Trees Bending to The Torrent”. At a crucial turning point in the play, the young Haimon is trying to convince his father to show mercy on Antigone. Haimon tells Creonte it is no weakness for the wisest man to learn when he is wrong, to know when to yield. So, on the margin of a flooded river, trees bending to the torrent live, unbroken, while those that remain rigid are snapped off. This dicotomy runs throught the play. Early on, Ismene beg her doomed sister to think of all who are still alive. But Antigone does not object to the charge of his fixation: “Leave me alone with my honorable death”. Antigone refuses to bend to the torrent. Ironically, the person who best articulates Antigone’s inflexibility is Creonte himself. Creonte absorbs Antigone’s unyelding desire to bury her brother. Creontes remains adamant agains all councils.
Almost everyone die and almost anyone learn anything. All of Antigone is a play about the grave perils of self-certainty. Some of the most influential creeds in the western world invite us to have faith and to trust in a extra-sensory world of beings and principles. To a Sophist, Antigone morbid obstancy and Creonte’s stubborness would have seem idiot. The Sophists did not believe in absoluts or the possibility of certainty.The Sophist believed in the limitless failibility of the individual. The Sophit believed that people can become harbouring absurd ideas due to rethoric; and worst: acting on those ideias.
Sophism is like a typhoon: no argument can stand against it. The problem is that, like a typhoon, Sophism lives in his empty cradle, which is not very usable philosophically thinking. But however destructive Sophism is, there’s someting healthy and humble about Sophism that Sophocles understood: scepticism and relativism never led anyone to war. These ideas encourages us to ask one another questions, not to fight against each other. There would be no Cruzades if Sophists, and not Plato, would have been adopted by the Catholic Church. The play Antigone closes with the lesson that tells us – in the face of our self-certainty and of our obsessionss with extrasensory phenomena – that one should adapt and compromise [ compromise = to agree to something that is not exactly what you want in order to end an argument or solve a problem].
The 32-year old Socrates, watching Antigone, would have seen great heroism in the main character. And 42 years later, Socrates, just lik Antigone, against the council of everyone around him, went to trial and killed himself rather than compromising his beliefs.
- 430 – 404 BCE | Guerras do Peloponeso entre Atenas e Esparta. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greekwar fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. [ here ].
A plague came to Athens in 430 BCE. In the second year of the war, throught Athens shipyards came grain shipments from far away Egipt. This ships brought something within them. In the years that it ravaged Athens, the plague killed a third of the city’s hoplites [hoplite = a heavily armed foot solider of ancient Greece].
In 429, Pericles died from the plague. Ever since Pericles had become envolved in public life, in the late 470’s, for over 40 years, then, he had been the first citizen of Athens. He had in many ways been the master builder, who’d engineered the city’s meteoric rise to prominence. His death meant that Ahtens had lost one of the greaters leaders and administrator in human history.
Literature — Probably the play Oedipus the King was first staged in 429, during the precise moment when athenians looked their greatest citizen pass and look into the murk of an impredictable future, as spartans and their allies sharpened their weapons to another year of war. The play can be thought of as an outcry of fear an uncertainty at the sudden misfortunes that confronted the athenina people in the black spring of 429 BCE. There is a sense that something beyond merely the plague is wrong with the city — as in the plot of the play.
To athenians, the slow, suffocation action of plot must have been dreadfully powerful. History show us that plagues always cause an intensity of religion sentimento. There was the sentiment that there are not gods at all. The destruction caused by the plague made the city an chaotic imoral jungle. The sacred places were full of corpses of persons that had died there, just as they were. Men, not knowing what would become of them, became utterly carless of everything.
This 27-year war envolved all the major powers in the Egean. In late April 404 Athens surrounded and Sparta assumed control over the city. This is the evening of the Golden Age Athens.
Athenians — just as, later, romans and christians did when suffered with plagues — wondered whether their gods had abandoned him to total annihilation.
- 405 — BCE | Literature – Sophocles dies just before the end of the Peloponesian War. He was at the middle of all of the events that took place during the Golden Age Athens. He saw the youth, adulthood and decline of Athens’ first phase of democracy.
- 404 — BCE | The end of Peoloponesean war. Athens surrounded. The spartan leader, upon Athen’s defeat, did march into the city. The Athens’ fleet was reduced to splinters. But the spartan leadershid did not mandate an execution of the athenian citizenry [conjunto de cidadãos], nor enslavement of them, nor a forced relocation. Instead, Sparta put power into the hands of 30 athenian elites. Elites who had for a long time sought to end democratic rule in Athens. These 30 elites, soon called the 30 tyrants, wanted to purge Athens of all democratic capabilities and make Athens into a plutocracy controlled by a small handful of families. In a reing of terror that followed, the search for democratic members of the population lead to a thousand of executions. But like other reings of terror in history, capital punishment and brutality were tricky tools in practice and a pro-democratic coup ended in the arrest of the 30 tyrans.
Thus [Literature], the year between 404 and 403 in the city of Athens, although nominally the war was over, was just another long season of blood shed. At its end, though, in 403 a general amnesty was declared for all in the city, except for the 30 tyrans and a small handful of others.
Literature With these despots finished, the city’s wealth vanished, its navy stalled and destroyed, its sububurbs pilled and burned, its sense of geopolitical predominance shadowed, Athens begin to bandage its wounds. Athens begin to think woriedly and hesitantly about how to rebuild and to continue on in a world after the atrocities of Peoloponesean war. It was just during this period that Sophocle’s grandson stages, in the spring of 401 BCE, his grandfather’s final play, Oedipus at Colonus, which is a requiem, a death song. The old citizens who watched in 401 had in the midsty of their collective glory discovered how fast and how far confidence could fall into chaos and prosperity into poverty – like in the plot of the plays Oedipus The King, Oedipus at Colonus.
- 336 – 323 BCE | Reinado de Alexandre da Macedônia. Seu império se estende até o Egito e a Índia.
- 334 BCE | Alexander The Great, the macedonian king, sets out with his army to conquer the world.
- 333 – 70 BCE | O período da história judaica na civilização helenística começa em 332 a.C., quando Alexandre, o Grande conquistou a Pérsia. Depois de sua morte em 323 a.C., exausto pelas conquistas e sem deixar herdeiros, seu império foi dividido entre seus generais, com o que ser formaram diversos reinos helenísticos. Primeiramente a Judeia foi governada pelos egípcio-helênicos Ptolomeus, . The Jews community settles in the new city of Alexandria and The Torah is translated into Greek. Helenic and Jewish culture developed friction to the point that on of the altars in the Temple of Solomon was dedicated to the worship of Zeus. Em 198, os sírio-helênico Império Selêucida, sob Antíoco III tomou o controle sobre a Judeia. In 164 BC, a traditionalist, anti-Helenic militia is organized and takes control of Jerusalem. The temple is restored and the kingdom of Judea becomes independent.
O período helenístico viu a canonização da Tanakh (A Bíblia Hebraica), de acordo com uma teoria, e a emergência de tradições sagradas extra-bíblicas. A evidência mais antiga de uma tradição mística judia cerca o livro de Ezequiel, escrito durante o exílio babilônico. No entanto, virtualmente todos os textos místicos conhecidos foram escritos no final do período do Segundo Templo. Estudiosos como Gershom Scholom identificaram dentro das tradições esotéricas da Cabala (misticismo judeu restrito aos sábios), a influência do zoroastrismo, platonismo e gnosticismo.
- 323 BCE – 031 AD | Greece’s Hellenistic Period – History and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC  and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
- 323 BCE | Início do helenismo. A influência grega se espalha pelo Mediterrâneo.
- 300 BCE | Construída a Muralha da China.
- 300 BCE | Civilização Gaulesa (Gauls)
- 260 BCE | Asoka, imperador da Índia, converte-se ao budismo e propaga essa religião em seu império.
- 264 – 241 BCE | Primeira Guerra Púnica: Cartago luta contra a dominação romana na Sicília.
- 221 BCE | O rei de Tsin derrota os outros senhores feudais e coroa-se imperador da China com o nome de Che Huang-Ti.
- 219 – 201 BCE | Segunda Guerra Púnica: Aníbal atravessa os Alpes e invade a Itália. Roma derrota a esquadra cartaginesa.
- 146 BCE | Os romanos destroem Cartago e Corinto.
- 123 – 121 BCE | Caio Grato tenta uma revolução social em Roma.
- 100 BCE | Suecos (Sweden)
- 100 BCE | Noruegueses (Norsemen)
- 100 BCE | Britons (povos celtas na Britannia) [ Wikipedia, Forum City]
- 63 BCE | Pompeu apodera-se de Jerusalém e estende as conquistas romanas pelo Oriente.
- 60 BCE | O primeiro triunvirato: Júlio César, Pompeu e Marcos Crasso governam Roma.
- 59 – 50 BCE | Os romanos conquistam a Gália.
- 58 BCE | Os romanos conquistam a Helvécia (atual Suíça).
- 49 BCE | Júlio César incia uma guerra civil de quase 20 anos contra o exército da República Romana para se instaurar como ditador.
- 46-44 BCE | Júlio César governa Roma e seus territórios. Depois de inciar uma ditadura, é assassinado a 15-3-44 BCE
- 43 BCE | O segundo triunvirato: Marco Antônio, Lépido e Otávio governam Roma.
- 31 BCE | Otávio derrota Marco Antônio e Cleópatra em Actium. Assume o nome de Augusto e torna-se o primeiro imperador de Roma.
- 19 BCE | Virgílio viaja da Grécia para Roma com o imperador Augusto. Em sua obra Eneida, retrata o novo momento político vivido em Roma e procura narrar os sacrifícios vividos pelos romanos. Ele procura mostrar aos romanos as suas origens e o seu potencial. Relacionando o surgimento de Roma com a mitologia grega – como a história da guerra de Tróia–, que os romanos conheciam tão bem. Tencionava fazer de Enéas, herói do enredo, um modelo para Augusto. Antes de morrer, Virgílio pede a seus amigos que queimem a Eneida, pois não gostou do resultado final. Mas os amigos se recusam e Augusto ordena a publicação a obra. Mas Augusto leu apenas três partes selecionadas da obra que lhes eram favoráveis. Não leu as partes que eram críticas. Enéas não se comporta como é de se esperar de um líder romano; tem dificuldade para dar cabo do seu dever de governante e frequentem parace ser um herói relutante. Tem dificuladade para equilibrar misericórdia e justiça. Como resultado, a Eneida sobreviveu para desde então tratar da natureza do poder de autoridade.
- 4 BCE | Data provável do nascimento de Jesus Cristo em Belém. Estudos demonstraram ter havido um engano de quatro anos na fixação da data para o início da era cristã.
- 6 AD | O budismo é introduzido na China.
- 29 AD | Data provável da morte de Jesus Cristo.
- 40 AD | É erigida em Corinto uma das primeiras igrejas cristãs.
- 43 AD | Roman invasion of Britain [ Wikipedia ] Dominam a atual Grã-Bretanha até 407.
- 45 AD | Paulo inicia suas viagens missionárias.
- 50 AD | Os godos estabelecem seu império no Vale do Vístula.
- 50 – 67 AD | Paulo escreve os primeiros textos do Novo Testamento.
- 60 ou 61 AD | Campanha de Boudicca contra o jugo romano [ Wikipedia ]
- 64 AD | Primeira perseguição aos cristãos, a quem Nero acusa de responsabilidade pelo incêndio que destruiu grande parte de Roma.
- 65 – 73 AD | Evangelho Segundo Marcos.
- 66 AD
In 66 AD, Vespasian was appointed to suppress the Jewish revolt underway in Judea. The fighting there had killed the previous governor and routed Cestius Gallus, the governor of Syria, when he tried to restore order. Two legions, with eight cavalry squadrons and ten auxiliary cohorts, were therefore dispatched under the command of Vespasian while his elder son, Titus, arrived from Alexandria with another.
During this time he became the patron of Flavius Josephus, a Jewish resistance leader captured at the Siege of Yodfat, who would later write his people’s history in Greek. Ultimately, thousands of Jews were killed and the Romans destroyed many towns in re-establishing control over Judea; they also took Jerusalem in 70. Vespasian is remembered by Josephus (writing as a Roman citizen), in his Antiquities of the Jews, as a fair and humane official, in contrast with the notorious Herod Agrippa II whom Josephus goes to great lengths to demonize.
Josephus (as well as Tacitus), reporting on the conclusion of the Jewish war, reported a prophecy that around the time when Jerusalem and the Second Temple would be taken, a man from their own nation, viz. the Messiah, would become governor “of the habitable earth”. Josephus interpreted the prophecy to denote Vespasian and his appointment as emperor in Judea.
- 66 AD |Vespasian (/vɛˈspeɪʒ(i)ən, –ziən/; Latin: Vespasianus [wɛspasiˈaːnʊs]; 17 November AD 9 – 23/24 June 79), was a Roman emperor, who reigned from 69 to 79 AD. The fourth and last emperor who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors, he founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for 27 years. His fiscal reforms and consolidation of the empire generated political stability and a vast Roman building program.Vespasian was the first emperor from an equestrian family and only rose into the senatorial rank as the first member of his family later in his lifetime. Vespasian’s renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II Augusta during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66.
While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, the emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate.
Little information survives about the government during Vespasian’s ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. Vespasian is often credited with restoring political stability to Rome following the chaotic reigns of his predecessors. After he died in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be succeeded by his natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
- Titus Flavius Josephus (/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/; 37 – c. 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף בן מתתיהו Yōsef ben Matiṯyāhu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς Iṓsēpos Matthíou paîs), was a first-century Romano-Jewish historian and military leader, best known for The Jewish War, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Jewish–Roman War made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome. In response, Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a slave and presumably interpreter. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor’s family name of Flavius.
Flavius Josephus fully defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian’s son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. Since the siege proved ineffective at stopping the Jewish revolt, the city’s pillaging and the looting and destruction of Herod’s Temple (Second Temple) soon followed.
Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70 CE), including the siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War (c. 75) and Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94). The Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation. Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an ostensibly Greek and Roman audience. These works provide valuable insight into first century Judaism and the background of Early Christianity, although not specifically mentioned by Josephus. Josephus’s works are the chief source next to the Bible for the history and antiquity of ancient Palestine, and provide a significant and independent extra-Biblical account of such figures as Pontius Pilate, Herod the Great, John the Baptist, James the Just, and possibly Jesus of Nazareth.
Check this interview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g40Eck6gW7U
- 67 AD | Morte do apóstolo Pedro. Lino o sucede como líder do Cristianismo.
- 70 AD | Revolta dos judeus contra Roma. Jerusalém é destruída por Tito; começa a Diáspora. The only wall of the enclosure that survived would become known as The Wailing Wall.
The earliest known Asian diaspora of note is the Jewish diaspora, the majority of which can be attributed to the Roman conquest, expulsion, and enslavement of the Jewish population of Judea.
- 79 AD | Pompeia e Herculano são destruídas por uma erupção do vulcão Vesúvio.
- 85 AD | Evangelhos de João e de Mateus.
- 96 AD | O romanos conquistam Bizâncio, que mais tarde se chamará Constantinopla.
- 100 AD | Os chineses inventam o papel.
- 135 | O imperador Adriano decreta a expulsão dos judeus da Palestina.
- 166 | Primeira invasão germânica na Itália.
- 250 | Cresce a perseguição aos cristãos; mártires são reverenciados como santos.
- 220 – 238 | Os godos invadem as Balcãs, a Ásia Menor e parte do Império Romano.
- 220 – 238 | Os godos saqueiam Atenas, Corinto e Esparta.
- 220 – 238 | Artaxexes conquista o Império Parta e funda o Império Neopersa.
- 235 | Começa a anarquia militar no Império Romano.
- 250 | Ostrogodos e Visigodos
- 265 | Seuma Yen funda a dinastia Tsin, que unifica a China até as invasões hunas.
- 284 | O Império Romano é dividido em Ocidental (Itália e África) e Oriental (Oriente Médio e Próximo e Egito). O primeiro é governado por Maximiliano em Milão; o segundo, por Diocleciano em Nicomédia, hoje território turco.
- 300 | O cristianismo é introduzido na Armênia.
- 300 | Cresce a influência budista na China.
- 300 | Apogeu da civilização maia, do sul do México, cuja influência chega até Hondura e Guatemala. O declínio se dá em 900.
- 303-311 | Ultimas perseguições aos cristãos em Roma. Em 311, mediante o Edito de Galério se termina oficialmente com perseguições.
- 313 | O imperador Constantino I promulga o Edito de Milão, que garante liberdade de culto aos cristãos.
- 320 – 380 | Apogeu da cultura hindu. A dinastia Gupta governa até 544, quando é derrotada pelos hunos brancos.
- 325 | O Primeiro Concílio de Nicéia, convocado por Constantino a pedido dos bispos do Oriente, condena as opiniões de Ário. [v. Arianismo]
- 330 | Constantinopla torna-se a capital do Império Romano do Oriente.
- 380 | Por meio do Edito de Tessalônica, Teodósio I faz do cristianismo a religião oficial do Estado romano.
- 381 | O primeiro Concílio de Constantinopla reafirma o Credo de Nicéia e estabelece a igualdade do Espírito Santo com as outras duas pessoas da Trindade.
- 395 | Início das invasões hunas na Europa e na Ásia. [ # Hunos]
- 409 | Os Suevos, povo germânico, formam na Península Ibérica o Reino da Galiza (Gallaecia), cuja capital era Bracara Augusta, atual Braga. [ Galiza e Lusofonia, Wikipedia]
- 410 | Com a menor atenção dada pelos romanos à Britannia, começa a ocupação dos povos germânicos que dá origem aos Anglo-Saxões [ Wikipedia , German-Speaking World]
- 432 | São Patrício inicia seu trabalho missionário na Irlanda.
- 434 | Início do comando por Átila das invasões hunas. Átila é expulso da Gália em 451.
- 441 – 442 | Os anglo-saxões conquistam o sul da Inglaterra.
- 451 | O Concílio de Calcedônia conclui pela existência de duas naturezas, uma humana e outra divina, na única pessoa de Cristo.
- 476 | Rômulo Augústulo, último imperador romano do Ocidente, é deposto pelo ostrogodo Odoacro.
- 478 | Surgem no Japão os primeiros santuários xintoístas.
- 481 – 511 | Reinado de Clóvis I, fundador da dinastia Merovíngia. Clóvis expulsa os romanos da Gália em 486 e se converte ao Cristianismo em 496.
- 484 | A excomunhão do patriarca Acácio de Constantinopla conduz ao primeiro cisma entre as igrejas ocidental e oriental.
- 491 | A igreja armênia separa-se de Bizâncio e Roma.
- 500 | A dinastia Yamato funda a linha imperial que reina no Japão até hoje.
- 500 | Irlanda (checar)
- 529 | Benedito de Nursia funda o monastério de Monte Cassino e a Ordem Beneditina.
- 506 | O visigodo Alarico II promulga o “Lex Romana Visigothorum”, um código de leis.
- 543 | Justiniano Imuda o conceito de Guilgul Neshamot ( reencarnação, para os judeus) sob influência de sua esposa, Teodora [ Wikipedia e Café História ]
- 550 | Gales é convertido ao cristianismo por Davi.
- 550 | O Budismo é introduzido no Japão.
- 550 | Os japoneses adotam a cultura e a escrita chinesas e se convertem ao Budismo.
- 560 – 616 | Reinado de Ethelbert de Kent na Inglaterra, que se converte ao Cristianismo e promulga o primeiro código de leis inglesas.
- 563 | Colombo (São Colombo) chega na Ilha de Iona, no litoral da atual Escócia. A ilha,que no passado havia abrigado uma escola de druidas, se tornou importante no cristianismo celta porque nela os monges escreveram o Livro de Kells.
- 568 | Inicia-se a invasão lombarda do norte da Itália.
- 570 | Nascimento de Maomé, fundador do Islamismo.
- 587 | É fundado o primeiro monastério budista no Japão.
- 587 | Na Espanha, os visigodos são convertidos ao cristianismo.
- 589 | A Lombardia é convertida ao cristianismo.
- 590 | Início do pontificado de Gregório, que consolida a autoridade papal.
- 590 – 628 | Khosroe II conquista Jerusalém, Damasco, o Iêmem e o Egito. A Pérsia estabelece as fronteiras da época de Dario I.
- 600 | Apogeu de Tiahuanaco, no Peru, junto ao lago Tititaca. Essa civilização declina depois de 1000.